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Organised by

EuroBrake Steering Committee

EuroBrake Advisory Board

ESOP Working Group

EuroBrake is organised by FISITA, the international membership organisation that supports the automotive and mobility systems sector in its quest to advance technological development. Having delivered against this mission for every generation of engineers since 1948, we are uniquely placed to promote excellence in mobility engineering and the development of safe, sustainable and affordable mobility solutions.

See FISITA Library items from EuroBrake 2022

EB2022-CSB-001

Oral

RENK Test System GmbH: Mr Johannes Leopold, Mr Matthias Huttner, Mr. Jens Härlen, Mr. Michael Steglich

Detail

The new and further development of vehicle brake systems today mainly takes place on flywheel brake test rigs. In these test benches, the brake disc is accelerated to the desired test speed by means of an electric motor. The vehicle mass is simulated using rotating flywheel masses that are integrated in the drive train of the test rig and are thus mechanically coupled to the brake disc to be tested. Different vehicle masses are usually implemented with several inertia masses, which can be coupled and decoupled as required. An exact setting to the vehicle mass to be simulated can then be made via the drive motor, which acts as a generator/motor during the test run and thus can represent an additional positive or negative inertia. In principle, a very simple and realistic simulation of the vehicle masses can be achieved using the flywheels, but the structurally complex implementation of such a solution ultimately means a not inconsiderable cost item in the total price of such a test system. The great advances that have been made in recent years with high-torque motors and their control accuracy make it possible today to ask whether the standard centrifugal masses can be replaced by a mass inertia simulation of large motors. For this purpose, extensive investigations and calculations are currently being carried out at RENK Test System GmbH using the example of a full-scale flywheel brake test bench for brake systems in rail traffic. The results of this work will be presented with the proposed technical paper: Estimation of the limits and control accuracy of the electrical inertia simulation by testing it on the real test bench Examination of the essential assemblies (base frame, basic flywheel, floating bearing (test specimen holder), test station) with regard to the necessary function, design and costs Presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of the "classic flywheel brake test bench" compared to the "brake test bench with electrical mass simulation" We would expressly welcome a following discussion of the presented study results (also regarding the partly personal preferences of the operators).

EuroBrake 2022

Testing requirements and friction couples

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Brake dyno with minimized flywheel mass - What can modern AC motors achieve?, EB2022-CSB-001, EuroBrake 2022

EB2022-EBS-004

Oral

AUDI AG: Dr. Sebastian Gramstat; Porsche AG: Mr. Manuel Wirth, Mr. Ingolf Eichmann; TU Braunschweig: Prof. Dr.-Ing Georg-Peter Ostermeyer; Volkswagen AG: Mr. Jan Voigt

Detail

An upcoming fine dust regulation is recently the most challenging issue in the brake development of ICE vehicles. In regards of countermeasures to improve the fine dust behaviour the hard-metal-coated brake disc is one of the most promising ways to reduce the mass and number of brake fine dust particles. According to the current publications of the PMP-group, todays foundation brake systems emit more the 10 mg per km fine dust in the size of PM10. Since an expected regulation reduces this amount significantly, the VW group is developing and monitoring the most promising approaches to fulfil the expected legislation. Our preferred idea is to prevent the production of fine dust. To face this issue, high-speed laser gladded coatings on the brake disc friction surface is one of the mainstream technologies. Since we have a change in the tribology of the foundation brake system on the disc side, we are also developing with our partners adjusted brake pad materials. This work focuses the influence of the mechanical and chemical properties of the brake disc coating on the fine dust emission behaviour. Therefore, we performed a test sequence with different tribological systems.

EuroBrake 2022

Brake emission testing

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Hard-metal-coated brake discs – impact of chemical and physical characteristics on fine dust emission behavior, EB2022-EBS-004, EuroBrake 2022

EB2022-EBS-005

Oral

AVL List GmbH: Dr. Athanasios Mamakos, Dr. Michael Arndt, BMW Group: Mrs. Katharina Kolbeck, Mr Thomas Schroeder; TU Ilmenau: Mr. Christopher Hamatschek, Dr. David Hesse

Detail

In the context of the PMP Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS), several brake systems were circulated at different laboratories to characterize their brake-wear particulate emissions following the recently developed PMP measurement methodology. Each laboratory is required to employ its own dynamometer, sampling system and measurement instrumentation, including PM2.5, PM10, 10 nm total particle number (PN) and optionally 10 nm solid particle number. The absence of reference measurement instrumentation circulated to the participating laboratories was mainly due to time constraints. Given the challenges associated with the characterization of brake-wear particles and the limited experience with the application of the new methodology, it is important to also assess the contribution of the measurement instrumentation on the repeatability and reproducibility of the novel methodology. To this end, a set of measurement instrumentation was circulated in three laboratories participating in the ILS. The instrumentation included two AVL PM samplers and the associated cyclones for PM2.5 and PM10 quantification, as well as two AVL Particle Counters (APCs). One APC was unmodified and fully compliant with the Global Technical Regulation (GTR) 15 as recently updated for 10 nm measurements. This includes the use of a full-flow CPC with a cut-off size at 10 nm, and a catalytic stripper at 350ºC. The second APC was a modified 10 nm version operating with its heaters deactivated, and the catalytic stripper removed. Both the APCs and the internal CPCs were calibrated in an iso-certified calibration line before the start of the campaign. Their calibration was also validated at the end of the measurement campaign. All three laboratories performed measurements with the two reference brake systems, one of which was tested with two different types of brake-pads. Some additional investigations were performed at each lab. These included testing of two different brake systems, one of which used drum-brakes, as well as investigations of an alternative bedding-in procedure. In this talk an overview of the measured particulate emissions including both mass and number, is presented. The reference brake systems allowed for the assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility of the measurement results for each metric. These figures when compared to the official statistics of the entire ILS will help assess the contribution of measurement instrumentation on the overall accuracy or the measurement methodology. The talk will also address the robustness as well as improvement potential in the methodology, based on the results with the additional brake systems and the alternative bedding-in procedure.

EuroBrake 2022

Standardisation & future outlook on brake particulate emission testing

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Brake-wear PM and PN instrumentation round robin, EB2022-EBS-005, EuroBrake 2022

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16 July 2021

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Friday 20 May

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Thursday 19 May

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Wednesday 18 May

06:00 AM to 04:30 PM

Tuesday 17 May

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Monday 16 May

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06:00 AM

ESOP Round Table 1

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07:00 AM

EuroBrake welcome address

Jan Münchhoff, AUDI AG / Chair of EuroBrake Steering Committee

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07:10 AM

EuroBrake opening plenary session

Chairs: David Barton, University of Leeds and Klaus Jäckel, Daimler Truck AG


Act by-wire – a new chapter for electrification


Speaker:

Stephan Stass, Robert Bosch GmbH Chassis Systems Control


Keynote address abstract:

Automated driving and new battery-electric platforms drive car makers and suppliers to focus even more on differentiation and efficiency.

Act by-wire, combining steer and brake by-wire, is addressing these topics with new flexibility in vehicle design and standardization in vehicle integration and production.


Bosch cross-domain vehicle motion management unlocks the full potential of act by-wire systems with its advanced control design solutions.


End customers benefit from new human machine interfaces and a more agile, safe and comfortable driving experience.


Data-driven development and virtualized software releases support to master complexity and to ensure a safe and efficient series introduction.


Can AI help reduce testing from the test engineering process? How data analytics can make testing smarter


Speakers:

Carlos Agudelo, Link Engineering Co.

Shravan Adapa, Soothsayer Analytics LLC


Keynote address abstract:

The test engineer conducts a test when there is no known answer to a technical question. Can I shorten the stopping distance by 30 % with this new brake package without increasing noise during normal driving? Can this new regenerative brake blending algorithm bring the total vehicle emissions below my target level? Can this smaller brake caliper provide the torque output for ABS and last a vehicle life for a shared vehicle? These are questions that we typically use to justify a test campaign or a test plan involving onroad, proving ground, and laboratory testing. All successful answers to the above have three things in common: lots of data, data pipelines, and algorithms.


But, there may be a different way to answer these and other questions: Artificial Intelligence, and its toolbox with Machine Learning, High-Performance Computing, Predictive and Prescriptive Analytics, and Neural Networks, to name the most common tools from AI. Automated and Connected Vehicles, Smart Logistics, Mobility as a Service, and Smart Manufacturing are areas where AI is growing the most, and all of them are within the automotive industry. We need to bridge the gap that exists with product development and its associated test programs.


This keynote takes a look at future applications: how we see AI/data analytics being applied to today’s needs in the brake industry, along with current challenges and opportunities. Also, the keynote looks at best practices for data management: the importance of keeping an organized database, and what any lab can do today to begin preparing itself for future data science applications. Lastly, we consider AI methods being applied today to leverage databases to result in improved processes, along with a case study related to brake emissions.

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08:15 AM

Break

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Advances in friction material formulation

Chair: Anne-Lise Cristol, University of Lille

Co-Chair: Kai Bode, Audi AG



EB2022-FBR-018

Effect of space fillers in the brake friction material on airborne particle emission: A case study with BaSO4, Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3


Jongsung Park, Hyungjo Seo and Ho Jang, Korea University

Yun Cheol, Hyundai Motor Company


EB2022-EBS-017

Effect of addition of aluminium anodizing waste on the wear and emission behaviour of a low metallic friction material for automotive braking Applications


Priyadarshini Jayashree and Giovanni Straffelini, University of Trento



EB2022-MDS-002

Effects of titanate on brake wear particle emission


Emiko Daimon. Otsuka Chemical Co., Ltd



EB2022-EBS-016

Performance of environmentally sustainable NAO Cu-free brake pads containing nitrile rubbers and recycled friction material


Vishal Reddy Singireddy, Rohit Jogineedi and Peter Filip, Southern Illinois University 

Chair: Matthias Leber, Porsche

Co-Chair: David Bryant, University of Bradford



EB2022-EBS-011

Serial process development and industrialization of laser-based hard coated brake discs


Phillip Utsch and Dominik Dobrzanski, HPL Technologies GmbH (WECODUR)

Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum, Aachen University



EB2022-MDS-006

Friction performance of an alumina based coating on cast iron brake disc


Xueyuan Nie, Ran Cai, Jingzeng Zhang and Jimi Tjong, University of Windsor

Sean Foots and Mark Lavelle, NUCAP Industries Inc.


EB2022-MDS-019

Laser cladding in brake disc coating – from application development to industrialization for mass production 


Hossein Najafi, Mehmet Kemal Coskun, Arkadi Zikin and Jörg Spatzier, Oerlikon



EB2022-MDS-017

Fine dust reduction by coating of brake discs using the high-speed laser metal deposition technology


Marco Göbel, TRUMPF Laser - und Systemtechnik GmbH

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Rotor coatings

Chair: Theodoros Grigoratos, European Commission JRC

Co-Chair: Katharina Kolbeck, BMW Group



EB2022-FBR-013 

The effects of corrosion on particle emissions from a grey cast iron brake disc


Ishmaeel Ghouri and David Barton, University of Leeds



EB2022-EBS-020

Influence of the driving behaviour on the non-exhaust brake emissions


Matteo Federici, Mara Leonardi, Andrea Bonfanti and Guido Perricone, Brembo S.p.A



EB2022-TSD-001

Next evolutions in the development of brake emission testing


Christof Danner, AVL List GmbH



EB2022-EBS-025

Investigations on recuperation and operation strategies of a battery electric vehicle under real world conditions as a basis for future brake wear particle emission measurements 


Christopher Hamatschek, David Hesse, Valentin Ivanov and Thomas Bachmann, TU Ilmeanu

Sebastian Gramstat and Anton Stich, Audi AG

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Environmental impact of brake wear particulate emissions

08:30 AM

Technical session 1

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10:25 AM

Lunch

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Thermal simulation

Chair: Joachim Noack, ZF Group

Co-Chair: Yannick Desplanques, University of Lille



EB2022-FBR-006

Robust disc and pad temperature estimation model – a machine learning / artificial intelligence approach 


Anthony Ohazulike and Abdessamed Ramdane, Hitachi Astemo Brake Systems



EB2022-MDS-010

Methodology for conjugate heat transfer analysis of brake discs


Balaji Ravindranath, Wabtec Corporation



EB2022-MDS-013

Cloud-based thermal simulation of brake disc cooling performance


Christian Taucher, ICON



EB2022-FBR-019

Identification and quantitative modelling of thermal localization mechanisms associated with low frequency vibration


Jean-François Brunel, Maxime Cathelineau and Philippe Dufrénoy, University of Lille

Dounia Fassi Fihri and Pierre-Gilles Belon, Stellantis 



EB2022-EBS-012

Thermomechanical modelling of frictional contact localization as wear and emissions sources sites


Valentin Bruant, Jean-François Brunel, Philippe Dufrénoy, University of Lille

Chair: Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Ford Werke GmbH

Co-Chair: Rick Kaatz, KBAA



EB2022-TSD-006

Brake fluids and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys: a fundamental investigation


Federico Bertasi, Marco Bandiera, Sara Gerosa, Arianna Pavesi, Fabio Manzoni, Andrea Bonfanti, Alessandro Mancini and Alessandro Sanguineti, Brembo S.p.A



EB2022-FBR-025

Tribological properties of low wear ceramic matrix composite friction pairings compared to standard friction pairings


Thorsten Opel, University of Bayreuth

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Coatings and other developments in brake components

Chair: Sebastian Gramstat, AUDI AG   

Co-Chair: Wolfgang Schroeer, DRIV



EB2022-TSD-017

Conversion of ISO PAS 22574 into an ISO DIS Standard


Andreas Jandl, FEMFM- Federation of European Manufacturers of Friction Materials



EB2022-TSD-008

Standardization of drag mode friction test for hydraulic and pneumatic vehicle brakes


Nicolae Penta, TMD Friction



EB2022-TSD-016

ISO PWI 4792 - Road vehicles – friction-relevant brake disc specification


Sebastian Gramstat, Audi AG

Carlos Agudelo, Link Engineering Co.



EB2022-TSD-019

ISO 6310 Compressive strain testing


Carlos Agudelo, Link Engineering Co.



EB2022-TSD-018

Update on SAE brake committees


Carlos Agudelo, Link Engineering Co.



EB2022-MFM-001

JSAE global standardisation activities update


Masaki Hayakawa, Akebono Brake Industry

Yoshihiro Osawa, Toyota Motor Company

Masato Yamaguchi, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd

Yuzo Todani, Mazda Motor Corporation

Naoki Hata, Tatsushi Ishikawa, ADVICS Co., Ltd

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Global standards and ISO update

11:00 AM

Technical session 2

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