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EB2021-STP-012

Paper + Video + Slides

Abstract

Dr. Federico Bertasi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Marco Bandiera, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Alessandro Mancini, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Arianna Pavesi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Andrea Bonfanti, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Prof. Massimiliano Bestetti, Politecnico di Milano, ITALY


Anodization plays a pivotal role in improving the corrosion resistance of Aluminum-Silicon alloys (AlSix) used in the production of brake calipers.[1] However, the presence of eutectic Silicon particles within the Al matrix can reduce the oxide layer growing rate, leading to inhomogeneous and porous coatings. Following this, tailored current/potential anodization waveforms have been developed, in order to overcome the presence of Silicon, thus obtaining anodic layers with enhanced morphological and corrosion-resistance features.[2][3]


In this scenario, a fervent lab-scale R&D activity has been carried out regarding the optimization of pulsed anodization in terms of current density and frequency of the used square wave, obtaining: 1) coated AlSix specimens (30cm2) showing a superior corrosion resistance; and 2) a set of refined anodization parameters to be used to treat AlSix –based materials.[4] Unfortunately, anodization of a prototype caliper, using the obtained optimized waveforms, is not straightforward and appears particularly more challenging with respect to the lab-scale treatment of small specimens. Indeed, the presence of: a) non-uniform Silicon distribution (machined vs. non-machined regions); and b) shielded areas and/or sharp edges; can strongly influence the oxide growth, leading to inhomogeneous coatings and a morphology-dependent corrosion resistance.


As a further step toward the implementation of the optimized parameters in an anodization pilot plant, an electrochemical bath is designed, aiming at: 1) anodize a single brake caliper; and 2) scale up the anodization parameters from specimens to caliper treatment. The manuscript will discuss the so-obtained anodized caliper in terms of oxide layer: a) morphology; b) wettability; and c) corrosion resistance. The effect of optimized vs. non-optimized parameters will be discussed as well. Results allow to outline the path for an advanced anodization process, that will briefly lead to obtain AlSix brake calipers with an extended corrosion resistance.


References:


[1] Bandiera, M., Bonfanti, A., Mauri, A., Mancini, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Corrosion Phenomena in Braking Systems”, CORROSION/20, Manuscript no. C2020-14550, 2020.


[2] Bandiera, M., Bonfanti, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Anodization: Recent Advancements on Corrosion Protection of Brake Calipers”, SAE Technical Paper, Manuscript no. 2020-01-1626, 2020.


[3] Fratila-Apachitei, L. E., J. Duszczyk, and L. Katgerman. "AlSi (Cu) anodic oxide layers formed in H2SO4 at low temperature using different current waveforms", Surface and Coatings Technology, 165.3, pp. 232-240, 2003.


[4] Bandiera, M., Mancini, A., Pavesi, A., Bonfanti, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Optimized Pulsed Anodization for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Silicon Alloys”, CORROSION/21, Manuscript no. C2021-16431, 2021. (under review).

EuroBrake 2021

ACB

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EB2021-MDS-007

Paper + Video + Slides

Abstract

Dr. Federico Bertasi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Marco Bandiera, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Arianna Pavesi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Andrea Bonfanti, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Alessandro Mancini, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY


Investigation of the corrosion performance of friction materials (FMs) plays a central role in: a) evaluating the corrosion resistance of braking pads [1]; b) elucidating galvanic couplings among different braking system components [2]; c) designing FMs with a negligible sticking effect upon coupling with a cast iron brake disc [3].


Corrosion performance can be evaluated by measuring proper electrochemical figures of merit [4] such as the: 1) corrosion potential (Ecorr); 2) corrosion current (Icorr); and 3) galvanic current (Igc); in agreement with a suitable test specification. Nevertheless, particular attention should be paid when measuring these quantities since several experimental details can lead to inaccurate or misleading results.


At this regard, the work clarifies the effect of several test parameters (e.g. scan rate, stabilization time, potential ranges, etc.) on the measure of the corrodibility of a reference friction material. Most common errors and their effect on the electrochemical figures of merit are discussed, with the final aim of providing a solid guideline for designing braking pads with a reduced corrodibility.


References:

[1] Bertasi, F., Mancini, A., Bandiera, M., Pin, S., Casini, A., Bonfanti, A., “Interplay between Composition and Electrochemical Performance at the Pad-Disc Interface”, EUROBRAKE, Manuscript no. EB2019-MDS-018 (Stansted, UK: FISITA, 2019), p. 1.

[2] Bertasi, F., Bandiera, M., Bonfanti, A., “Toward a Corrosion Proof Braking System”, SAE Technical Paper, Manuscript no. 2020-01-1625, 2020.

[3] Bandiera, M., Mancini, A., Bonfanti A., Pavesi, A., Pin S., Bertasi, F. “Sticking Phenomena at the Brake Pad – Disc Interface: An Open Call for Electrochemists”, CORROSION/21, Manuscript no. C2021-16429, 2021. (under review).

[4] Bandiera, M., Pin, S., Bonfanti, A., Bertasi, F., Mancini, A., “Physico-Chemical Characterization of Corrosion Scales in Braking Systems”, CORROSION/20, Manuscript no. C2020-14687, 2020.

EuroBrake 2021

EFF

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EB2020-EBS-031

Paper + Video + Slides

Abstract

Dr. Alessandro Mancini, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Sonia Pin, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Ms. Bozhena Tsyupa, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Federico Bertasi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Mr. Marco Bandiera, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Matteo Federici, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Andrea Bonfanti, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Guido Perricone, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Prof. Ezio Bolzacchini, University of Milano Bicocca, ITALY


Air quality still represents nowadays one of the most challenging problem to be faced from both ecological, health and socio-economical points of view. Centrality of this topic is confirmed from the huge related scientific literature produced as well as the strong legislation activity developed by several national governments and international organizations. Recently, good results in terms of reduction of air pollutants have been achieved. However, particulate matter (PM) is among the air-pollutant categories, the one which is less affected by the adopted countermeasures. In urban areas, significant amount of airborne particulate matter emissions is due to the road transport and are usually divided in the following two categories: i) Exhaust Emissions, referring to particles from combustion; and ii) Non-Exhaust Emissions, indicating particles generated by braking operation, by wear of tyres and roads and by resuspension effects. In recent yers, significant efforts were performed by legislators to reduce exhaust emissions, leading to specific regulations (as for instance EURO Emission Standards). Following the continuous improvement in exhaust treatment technologies, non-exhaust emissions contribute nowadays to the total with similar weight of the exhaust ones. Furthermore, forecasts report that in next the years up to 90% of the total road traffic emissions will arise from non-exhaust sources. With specific reference to non-exhaust emissions, particles generated as primary emission from braking systems are estimated to contribute to the PM10 and PM2.5 blocks respectively by around 50% and 20%. Significant scientific and technological efforts were performed only in the very recent past in order to correlate braking operations and their related particulate emissions, reaching generic understanding on the mechanics and physics involved in the process. In particular, diffuse work has been made in developing robust particles collection protocols and validating reliable analytical methods for determination of particulate number (PN) and mass (PM). However, only limited and very punctual chemical information from few observational studies are available and a complete physico-chemical evaluation of specific emissions from braking operation is still lacking in the current literature. In this contribution, a novel and more complete experimental approach for physico-chemical characterization of brake emissions is presented, including: i) Preparation of an analytical standard simulating brake emission; ii) Calibration of different quantitative analytical techniques for chemical and phase composition detection; and iii) Application of developed analytical protocol on real case sample from dyno-bench test. Particular attention will be paid in extending and deepening the insight on the chemical composition, moving from a standardless approach to the use of external standards for Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and C,H,N,O-Elemental (EA) analysis. In addition, a closer look into the phase composition will be provided, thanks to the application of the XRD technique. Results reported in the work are meant to provide more reliable and robust chemical tools for bridging the gap between the dimensional characterization of PM from brake emissions and the eco-toxicological studies.

EuroBrake 2021

BEML

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Marco Bandiera obtained a MS in Chemistry at the University of Padova in Italy in 2018. After the graduate study, he joined Brembo S.p.a. as Processes Specialist and is now a PhD student in Materials Engineering at Politecnico di Milano. His main research activities focus on anodization and coatings obtained through electrochemical methods.

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