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Congress: Oldrich Vitek on CFD analysis of pre-chamber gas SI ICE & ICE Turbomachinery performance

Event: FISITA World Congress 14-16 September 2021 online

Name: Oldrich Vitek, associated professor

Company: Czech Technical University (CTU)

Presentation Titles: F2020-ADM-062 CFD Analysis of natural gas SI ICE Equipped with Scavenged Pre-Chamber

F2020-ADM-102 Progress in Performance Modelling of ICE Turbomachinery – Application of Predictive CFD Models

Please introduce yourself briefly…

The name of the presenter is Oldrich Vitek, who is an associated professor (2012) at the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague (Czech Republic). Since 2000 he has been working at CTU as a researcher. He did his Master Thesis and Ph.D. Thesis at the CTU. Since 2015 he is a head of the Department of Automotive, Combustion Engine and Railway Engineering of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at CTU in Prague. He focuses mainly on 1-D and 3-D thermodynamic simulation of internal combustion engines.

What you will talk about at this year’s FISITA World Congress?

There are 2 papers to be presented at FISITA World Congress. The first paper (F2020-ADM-062) analyzes the performance of scavenged pre-chamber gas SI ICE using detail 3-D CFD model, which was calibrated by available experimental data. Such concept has a potential to achieve very high engine efficiency (using lean combustion concept) while keeping pollutant formation (mainly NOx) at very low level.

The second paper (F2020-ADM-102) is focused on different ways of predictive turbomachinery modeling based on CFD approach – both 3-D CFD and 1-D CFD are considered. The application of such models is shown in the paper while presenting different sensitivity studies and ICE operation cases (considering both steady-states and transients).

What benefits will participants gain from your presentation?

The main benefit of the first paper (F2020-ADM-062) is a better understanding of complex phenomena taking place inside pre-chamber gas SI ICE while considering different operating conditions of the engine and different pre-chamber designs. The pre-chamber itself is very important – its optimal design and operation is a critical factor to achieve fast combustion, hence high indicated efficiency of engine thermodynamic cycle.

The main benefit of the second paper (F2020-ADM-102) is the overview about state of the art simulation approach in the daily simulation work in the T/C application field. The other benefit is a better understanding of complex phenomena taking place inside a radial turbine while considering different operating conditions (steady flow, ICE steady state operation, ICE transients).

Which trends do you consider as the most important for your domain of research and your geographical region?

Regarding further optimization of ICE, advanced combustion modes and high-efficiency boosting systems are of high interest. Concerning the former, these are usually based on very lean mixture concept and they can achieve really high efficiency (for automotive applications, peak brake efficiency is expected to exceed 47%) while keeping pollutant formation at low level. Such ICEs in combination with optimal hybridization level have potential for significant reduction of CO2. Introduction of synthetic fuels can bring additional improvements of both ICE efficiency and global CO2 balance (based on cradle-to-grave approach). Dealing with the latter, having a turbocharger of high efficiency is one of critical factors to achieve low fuel consumption, fats transient response and potentially low pollutant formation. Hence, optimizing turbocharger performance/design is very important. Electrical assistance of a turbocharger provides additional benefits.

Regarding further optimization of ICE, advanced combustion modes and high-efficiency boosting systems are of high interest.

What challenges do these trends present?

Detailed understanding of complex phenomena (thermodynamics, turbulence, chemistry, etc.) is important to optimize advanced combustion systems. This requires both reliable experimental data and complex simulation tools with high predictive capability – the interaction between chemistry and turbulence is especially challenging from modeling point of view.

Detailed understanding of complex phenomena (thermodynamics, turbulence) inside a turbocharger (i.e., both compressor and turbine) is important to optimize it. This requires both reliable experimental data and complex simulation tools with high predictive capability. The focus is shifted towards transient operation. Concerning the electrically assisted turbochargers, optimal control strategy (of electric energy deployment) is a critical factor.

And what opportunities do these trends offer?

One opportunity is to increase significantly efficiency of a powertrain based on such ICE (equipped with advanced combustion system and/or high efficiency turbocharger) in combination with suitable hybrid system (to avoid low efficiency operation of ICE). Electrically assisted turbocharger can provide additional benefits (e.g., faster transient response, better control, energy harvesting) – however, relatively large electrical power is required, thus suitable hybrid powertrain system is needed.

Other opportunities are related to increasing knowledge of such complex phenomena and introducing advanced SW tools based on such knowledge.

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About the FISITA World Congress

Since 1947, the FISITA World Congress has been the leading international meeting place for industry experts, engineers and executives to exchange ideas and discuss the trends that drive the automotive industry forward. The theme for the 38th FISITA World Congress is 'From automobile to mobility. New roles. New challenges' and it will take place 14-16 September 2021, with the opportunity for the global audience to join virtually available for the first time. Registration is now open, with the Early Bird and special registration rates available until 31 August 2021.

Content from the 2020 FISITA Web Congress is available within the FISITA Technical Library, while material from previous Congress events back to 1998 is available in the FISITA Store. By the time of this year’s Congress, all the content will be available within the FISITA Technical Library, with free access provided to FISITA members.

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