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EuroBrake 2022: Braking systems as part of the mobility agenda (Part 2) session overview

The Braking systems as part of the mobility agenda (Part 2) session will take place on Thursday May 19th and will be chaired by Andrea Cerutti of Brembo S.p.A and co-chaired by Paul Linhoff of Continental.

Topics and speakers for the session include:

Evolution of braking systems: the road towards brake by wire

Patricio Barbale, IHS Markit

For this presentation I would like to show the results of our research about Brake Actuation systems. We have a forecast from 2020 to 2033 showing for each car in the market (up to 6tons) the technical information about the brake actuation system (Hydraulic, Electro-Hydraulic, Electro-Mechanical)(1-box, 2-box) and the supplier of the system (Bosch, Advics, Contiental, etc).

I can show the connections between the evolution of brake actuation systems connected with the increased penetration of Electric and Autonomous vehicles.

Electro-hydraulic brake systems are the most used today for Alternative Propulsion vehicles, while we will see new systems (Brake by wire) connected with autonomous vehicles after 2027.

This kind of analysis can be split by region, to see how different regions are working on this component. In the same way we can see the systems that the different OEMs are using.

Finally, I can also show the evolution of the control system, moving to Chassis domain controller or zonal domain controllers.

Multi actuator vehicle dynamics control for future E/E architectures

Tobias Augustin, Robert Bosch GmbH

Conventional vehicle dynamics control systems have two major functions when it comes to vehicle motion control. First, they make vehicles stable and safer in critical driving situations through wheel individual braking interventions. Second, they excite the driver by brand-specific vehicle dynamics response and agility.

The ongoing and strong transition to electrified powertrain systems and the introduction of by-wire technology are making attractive actuator systems available for vehicle dynamics control, in addition to the traditionally used braking systems. They give rise to new potentials for the control of vehicle dynamics and at the same time impose new requirements to the control system. Thus, modern vehicle dynamics control systems need to be capable of managing cross-domain actuator control, keeping system complexity low, creating synergies, and unlocking the full potential of each single actuator in any driving situation. Further, the ongoing trend to more centralized and zone-oriented vehicle E/E architectures is another major technological challenge in developing a future-proof vehicle dynamics control system.

As the global market leader for vehicle dynamics control systems, Bosch has taken up these trends several years ago and is now introducing the next generation vehicle dynamics control system, Bosch Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0. It will be launched in the European vehicle mass and premium sports car market from 2023 onwards.

Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0 incorporates a completely re-designed smart controller concept. It is based on a model-based feed-forward control approach which allows to anticipate the vehicle behaviour instead of just reacting to a sudden event. As a result, vehicle passengers benefit from a much more agile, safe, and natural driving experience. Finally, the integrated controller concept allows to easily integrate, control, and utilize various actuators for vehicle dynamics control. Car makers are relieved of complex tasks such as coordinating single and independent control systems while at the same time benefiting from synergies.

From the first line of code, Bosch experts have strictly followed three design principles of software-defined vehicles. First, Bosch has abstracted its vehicle dynamics control system from a specific hardware component. As a result, Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0 will enable flexible deployment on components based on standardized interfaces. Second, the modular architecture of Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0 enables to scale and apply the controller to any vehicle segment as well as any powertrain configuration. It even allows integration of further relevant actuators, like steering systems. Finally, Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0 has low dependency on other controller functions. This enables a long-term evolution of the controller, flexibility in customization and deployment as well as updates without excessive complexity and cost.

Vehicle Dynamics Control 2.0 from Bosch demonstrates a revolutionary step in vehicle dynamics control systems. It is no longer a domain-specific function but rather rapidly evolving into a cross-domain coordination and control system, anticipating modern and future vehicle development technology trends.

Brake redundancy concept analysis for high autonomous driving

Mr. Deaglán Ó Meachair, BrakeBetter

The field of autonomous vehicle system engineering is one of keen research and development interest for many areas of automotive engineering. Along with electrification, the short to medium term future of automotive engineering across many disciplines is likely to include adaptations for increasing levels of automation. We can also see existing pilot programs increasing their operational design domain to encompass a greater number of tasks in more of our transport infrastructure, as well as evolving legislative requirements.

For a brake system, the task of autonomous driving (with or without human presence) mandates redundancy in many subsystem elements. Indeed, defining a meaningful brake concept for an autonomous vehicle requires a systemic analysis of both the operational organisation of the control system, as well as the performance and redundancy requirements for such a system.

In this paper, the authors will present a redundant brake system concept which addresses the necessary braking tasks from both an operational and redundancy viewpoint. The concept vehicle is envisaged for fully autonomous driving as well as human driving, utilising modular electric drivetrain and associated brake energy recovery. We will demonstrate a systematic construction of the major braking tasks, and how these tasks are distributed and replicated in a redundant brake system architecture.

Having established and organised the major braking tasks, the paper will then consider the necessary system performance in a fully functional and (partially) failed state. For each state, braking performance targets will be set against a variety of longitudinal and lateral dynamic metrics. The paper will then consider each major task during a transition from a fully functional state to a failed state and offer a categorisation regime for the braking tasks during such a transition event.

With this categorisation, it is then possible to define which tasks must be continual during a handover event, and those where an interruption of task may be safely allowed. Finally, for the most safety critical tasks, a safety analysis will be presented, which allows for a Fault Tolerant Time Interval (FTTI) of the task to be defined.

By defining the brake system concept using this task-centric approach, it is possible to consider the architectural layout options for the concept vehicle and consider these layout options against a cohesive requirement set.

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