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EB2021-STP-020

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Abstract

Mr. Asmawi Sanuddin, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Prof. David Barton, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Peter Brooks, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Carl Gilkeson, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Shahriar Kosarieh, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Prof. Suman Shrestha, Keronite International Ltd, UNITED KINGDOM


Lightweight disc brake rotors have become a popular alternative to conventional grey cast iron (GCI). The thermal and tribological response of these brake rotors will differ during a braking operation. This may result in the generation of particulate wear debris with different characteristics, which can affect the environment and human health to different degrees. Studies have shown a relationship between adverse health effects and the characteristics of airborne particulate matter such as particle size, concentration and chemical composition. In this study, the particulate matter released from a novel lightweight disc brake rotor is compared to that released from the conventional grey cast iron rotor. The lightweight brake rotor was made of aluminium alloy (Al6082) and its rubbing surfaces were treated using the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. The process produced hard, dense, wear-resistant and well-adhered alumina coatings of approximate thickness 50 microns.


A novel test rig was developed based upon the existing Leeds full-scale disc brake dynamometer. An enclosure was constructed around the brake assembly and ducting was carefully designed to ensure the cleanliness of the intake air to the system. Both brake rotors were tested under drag-braking conditions of constant sliding speed and applied braking pressure. Three braking test conditions with hydraulic pressures of 5, 10 and 15 bar at a constant speed of 135 rpm were selected from initial brake dynamometer tests. Braking test parameters of rotor rubbing surface temperature and coefficient of friction were measured during the tests and their effect on the brake wear particle characteristics were investigated. To measure and collect airborne brake wear particles, the Dekati ELPI+ unit was utilised along with a custom-made probe. This probe was made of stainless steel and its geometry was tailored to comply with the isokinetic concept. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) system was utilised to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of the airborne brake wear particles collected by the Dekati unit.


The initial comparison results showed that the PEO-treated lightweight aluminium alloy (PEO-Al) rotor has the potential not only to significantly reduce the unsprung mass of the vehicle but also reduce particulate matter emissions compared with the standard GCI rotor. The results also revealed that the percentage of iron contained in the PEO-Al debris was about threefold lower than that from the GCI rotor under all steady-state drag braking conditions studied which may have important health implications.


EuroBrake 2021

ACB

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EB2021-STP-002

Paper + Video + Slides

Abstract

Mr. Fabian Limmer, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Prof. David Barton, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Carl Gilkeson, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Peter Brooks, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM

Dr. Shahriar Kosarieh, University of Leeds, UNITED KINGDOM


The brake industry is currently on the search for lighter, corrosion-resistant and more eco-friendly brake systems. Apart from health and environmental issues, the main drivers for this development are the changing load profiles arising from the megatrends of electrification and autonomous driving. As the brake disc and brake pad together represent a tribological system, both components must be adjusted in order to achieve optimal functionality.


Testing of brake friction couples, however, is usually a very costly, energy and time-consuming process, that only allows for a very limited range of material concepts to be considered. This is where testing friction materials on a small-scale level has great advantages because much time and money can potentially be saved in sample generation, testing and post-test analysis compared with full-scale testing.


A novel small-scale test bench has been developed at the University of Leeds which aims to screen friction materials under realistic braking conditions. The foundation of the setup is the Bruker UMT TriboLab tribometer operating in a modified pin-on-disc type configuration. Popular full-scale cycles such as the WLTP based real-world driving cycle have been implemented to replicate current everyday driving scenarios as well as custom cycles that aim to simulate possible future load profiles. A full enclosure around the friction couple has been designed using CFD to allow for controlled airflow and subsequent wear debris capture and analysis. The wear particles generated during braking operation are sampled under isokinetic conditions using the well-known Dekati ELPI+ instrument.


The paper will report on the scaling approach used to design the test bench and the conversion of the WLTP based real-world driving cycle to a non-inertial system. Details of the CFD analysis as well as preliminary test results will also be presented.

EuroBrake 2021

BEML

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Lecturer In Mechanical Engineering

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Dr. Shahriar Kosarieh

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