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As autonomous vehicles begin to drive on the road, rational decision making is essential for driving safety and efficiency. The decision-making of autonomous vehicles is a difficult problem since it depends on the surrounding dynamic environment constraints and its own motion constraints. As the result of the combination of deep learning (DL) and reinforcement learning (RL), deep reinforcement learning (DRL) integrates DL's strong understanding of perception problems such as visual and semantic text, as well as the decision-making ability of RL. Hence, DRL can be used to solve complex problems in real scenarios. However, as an end-to-end method, DRL is inefficient and the final result tend to be poorly robust. Considering the usefulness of existing domain knowledge for autonomous vehicle decision-making, this paper uses domain knowledge to establish behavioral rules and combine rule-based behavior strategies with DRL methods, so that we can achieve efficient training of autonomous vehicle decision-making models and ensure the vehicle to chooses safe actions under unknown circumstances. First, the continuous decision-making problem of autonomous vehicles is modeled as a Markov decision process (MDP). Taking into account the influence of unknown intentions of other road vehicles on self-driving decisions, a recognition model of the behavioral intentions of other vehicles was established. Then, the linear dynamic model of the conventional vehicle is used to establish the relationship between the vehicle decision-making behavior and the motion trajectory. Finally, by designing the reward function of the MDP, we use a combination of RL and behavior rules-based controller, the expected driving behavior of the autonomous vehicle is obtained. In this paper, the simulation environment of scenes of intersections in urban roads and highways is established, and each situation is formalized as an RL problem. Meanwhile, a large number of numerical simulations were carried out, and the comparison of our method and the end-to-end form of DRL technology were discussed.
Mr. Jinzhu Wang, Tongji University, CHINA Mr. Jie Bai, Tongji University, CHINA Mr. Libo Huang, Tongji University, CHINA Ms. Huanlei Chen, Tongji University, CHINA
Autonomous Driving Decision-making Based on the Combination of Deep Reinforcement Learning and Rule-based Controller
F2021-ACM-108 • Paper + Video • FISITA World Congress 2021 • ACM - Automated and Connected Mobility
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