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The automotive future is electric. And this future requires laboratory methods to characterize the particulate matter emitted by brakes fitted on vehicles with hybrid or fully electric propulsion systems. Since adapting existing simulation technologies (like Hardware-in-the-Loop) may not apply to routine emissions testing, the industry needs a simplified method, which still yields relevant and useful results. Using functions that enable the emulation of the torque output of the electric machine during braking, provides an intermediate and practical platform to conduct testing. After explaining the key concepts and elements which comprise the torque v. speed and road load functionality, this paper presents results from three parts of the investigations. The first part involves the use of Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools to assess the regen torque v. speed curves relative to full vehicle simulation, the second part relates to the fidelity of the dynamometer torque v. speed curves replication close to the vehicle (validated) curves provided for the laboratory dynamometer tests. The third part of the paper presents results from applying the torque v. speed curves to the WLTP-Brake cycle developed by the UNECE/GRPE/PMP/IWG/TF1 and TF2 to present the effect of regenerative braking related to brake emissions. When the three elements are understood and demonstrated (core concepts, validation to the vehicle, and application on the dynamometer), the automotive industry can pursue reliable and useful laboratory measurements for brake emissions from electrified vehicles. The work presented was a part of the development of the emission measurement procedure for electrified vehicles within Task Force 4 of PMP Group.
Ford Werke Gmbh: Dr. Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Dr. Athul Raj, Dr. Marcel Mathissen, Mr. Dominik Schenk, Mr. Martin Stenitjes; Link Engineering Co: Mr. Carlos Agudelo, Dr. RaviTeja Vedula, Mr. Chris Urban, Mr. John Miller, Mr. Lee Davis, Mr. Scott Tonn
Application of Regenerative Braking Using Torque v. Speed Curves During Inertia Dynamometer Tests for Brake Emissions
EB2022-EBS-023 • Oral • EuroBrake 2022 • Brake emission testing
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