In the motorsports industry, brake performance is a critical component of vehicle optimization. One important factor affecting the brake performance is the increasing of brake disk temperature generated by the blockage of cooling air. Such phenomenon is called blanking. This rise in temperature can affect the temperature of the rim and air inside the tire, leading to changes in tire temperature and pressure, finally impacting vehicle performance [1-2-3-4]. Therefore, a correct optimization of the brake blanking is fundamental to help the tire to work in the correct thermal window, reaching the maximum achievable grip. To address this issue, the paper examines how blanking influences tire pressure and inner liner temperature, resulting from brake heating, to predict its effects, providing valuable insights regarding managing blanking and preparing for races more effectively [5-6-7]. In this paper, the research highlights the practical applications of the model in the context of motorsports and offers a significant contribution to improving the warm-up procedure having the tires in the correct working range as fast as possible for all the circuits. The main goal of this study is to develop a co-simulation platform comprising two main components: a tire thermal model and a brake one, able to reproduce various levels of blanking, allowing for the simulation of the effects of such variation on the temperature change and the analysis of how it affects the inner liner tire temperature and inflation pressure exchange. The tire thermal model simulation model, called thermoRIDE [8-9-10], is the evolution of the Thermo Racing Tire model, developed by the University of Naples Federico II. The thermoRIDE is a physical-analytical model based on Fourier’s law conceived in the Lagrangian reference system capable of faithfully replicating the thermal behavior of the tire and to provide a detailed local temperature distribution within its inner rubber layers. The tire is considered motionless and the boundary conditions, linked with external environment thermal exchanges, vary during the simulation. The model was first parametrized, measuring the tire diffusivity, specific heat and footprint variation due to vertical load, camber and inflation pressure in laboratory, calibrated and then validated by comparing the simulation results with the temperature measurements obtained from experimental tests carried out on track with a sportscar equipped with four infrared sensors on each wheel: two with 5 spots to measure surface and inner liner tire temperature, 2 with single spot to measure rim and disk temperature. The brake disks with 4 different blanking configurations were used for the tests campaign from total closed to total open. The experimental results showed that the inflation pressure and temperature changes of the inner tire were influenced by the blanking configuration of the brake disk. Since the thermal exchange between the rim and the disk requires a very complex formulation to be modeled with a high degree of accuracy, a challenging task of the described work corresponds to define a calibration procedure of the disk model requiring specific tests to be carried out preserving the integrity and the functionality of the components. Such restrictions did not compromise the robustness of the results of this study, which manifested practical implications for the design of brake disks. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones and the developed and validated co-simulation platform was then used to predict the temperature changes of the inner tire for different blanking configurations in different circuits. The model developed in this study can be used to optimize the blanking configuration of the brake disks to achieve the desired working temperature. This can lead to improved braking performance, increased safety and warm-up procedures. By addressing the issue of blanking and predicting its effects, these studies provide valuable insights into managing brake performance and improving vehicle performance in motorsports and provide a good basis for future work on the modeling and optimization of automotive braking systems.
Dr. Vincenzo Maria Arricale, Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Naples; Prof. Flavio Farroni, Assistant Professor - tenure track, University of Naples; Mr. Alessandro Scotto d'Antuono, Vehicle Performance Engineer, MegaRide; Dr. Damiano Capra, CXO, MegaRide; Mr. Fabio Romagnuolo, Engineer, Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II