Copper is one of the most important components in brake pads and its amount can reach up to 14%. In spite of a number of positive features copper usage in brake pad formulations has recently become the subject of considerable discussions, primarily due to concerns about potential risks related to environmental impacts of copper particles. So, for developing new pad formulations with possible replacements of copper content, it is very important to understand the functionality of copper additions to brake friction materials. In the paper theoretical investigation of the role of copper as a pad ingredient was carried out on the basis of modelling by the method of movable cellular automata (MCA). Our previous studies show that copper as a constituent of the tribofilm formed during braking provides smooth sliding by forming a granular layer of mechanically mixed materials from the friction layers. In the present study the concentration of copper particles in a Fe3O4-matrix was varied systematically in the range 5.5-28 vol. % and compared to mixtures with the same amount of graphite nanoparticles. The sliding simulations were performed while assuming material properties at 500°C in order to assess the beneficial role of copper during severe braking conditions corresponding to fading cycles during dynamometer testing.
Dmitriev, Andrey*, ISPMS Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Tomsk, Russian Federation; TSU Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; Werner, Österle, BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany