top of page

Politecnico di Milano

Politecnico di Milano




Politecnico di Milano is a scientific-technological university which trains engineers, architects and industrial designers.

The University has always focused on the quality and innovation of its teaching and research, developing a fruitful relationship with business and productive world by means of experimental research and technological transfer.

Research has always been linked to didactics and it is a priority commitment which has allowed Politecnico Milano to achieve high quality results at an international level as to join the university to the business world. Research constitutes a parallel path to that formed by cooperation and alliances with the industrial system.

Knowing the world in which you are going to work is a vital requirement for training students. By referring back to the needs of the industrial world and public administration, research is facilitated in following new paths and dealing with the need for constant and rapid innovation. The alliance with the industrial world, in many cases favored by Fondazione Politecnico and by consortiums to which Politecnico belong, allows the university to follow the vocation of the territories in which it operates and to be a stimulus for their development.

The challenge which is being met today projects this tradition which is strongly rooted in the territory beyond the borders of the country, in a relationship which is developing first of all at the European level with the objective of contributing to the creation of a single professional training market. Politecnico takes part in several research, sites and training projects collaborating with the most qualified European universities. Politecnico's contribution is increasingly being extended to other countries: from North America to Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe. Today the drive to internationalization sees Politecnico Milano taking part into the European and world network of leading technical universities and it offers several courses beside many which are entirely taught in English.




Stay up to date with FISITA Spotlight

More Blogs Item Title

Excerpt from the blog goes here - this will give the reader a brief snapshot of what the post is about...

16 July 2021


See FISITA Library items from Politecnico di Milano


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gianpiero Mastinu, P, Politecnico di Milano


Cooperative, connected and automated mobility (CCAM) is one of the topics of the European Project AI@EDGE. The aim is to develop a framework in which artificial intelligence (AI), 5G and edge computing are combined to allow smooth flow of traffic into roundabouts. Cooperative, connected and automated vehicles (CCAVs) are being constantly developed with the aim of their widespread utilization on public roads in the near future. The introduction of CCAVs will be gradual with a transition period when both automated and human driven vehicles will be present on the road. In this situation, the understanding of CCAVs interaction with traditional human-driven cars is of paramount importance to assess their safety and functionality. On road tests are prohibitive for the lacking of proper CCAVs, costs and safety issues. In this situation, commercial traffic simulators software may represent a viable alternative, since they can reproduce most traffic conditions, allowing to understand traffic dynamics in the pertinent situations. However, these tools rely on driver models that can represent the human behaviour only in a very approximated way, thus limiting their ability to reliably simulate CCAVs and human drivers interactions. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a co-simulation between a traffic simulator software and a dynamic driving simulator. This coupling allows to introduce a human-in-the-loop and to evaluate the effect of a real human driver in the simulated environment. The proposed approach has been developed as a use case of a comprehensive research project, named AI@EDGE, funded by European Commission, focusing on the improvement of 5G networks through artificial intelligence and edge computing. In particular, this use case has the objective of understanding the requirements, benefits and limitations of edge computing and artificial intelligence in traffic management. With this aim in view, a critical aspect is represented by interactions between human drivers and CCAVs. In this context, the use of a dynamic driving simulator can represent a powerful tool to investigate the interactions between human drivers and automated cars. In fact, it allow to test the AI algorithm in a safe, controllable and repeatable environment, avoiding costs and safety issues related to testing in the real traffic. Additionally, by this approach, testing time can be greatly reduced as different situations can be easily reproduced by modifying the parameters of the simulations. As reference traffic scenario, a single-lane roundabout has been selected. The roundabout is negotiated by simulated vehicles, both automated and human-driven, and an actual human driven vehicle. The latter is controlled by a human driving the dynamic driving simulator. The driving simulator employed for the research is a cable driven dynamic simulator located at DriSMi laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The dynamics of the vehicle driven in the driving simulator is simulated by a complete real-time multi-body vehicle model. The driver on the driving simulator, beside the motion feedback of the simulator, is also immersed in a graphical and sound environment providing a fully immersive and realistic experience. The traffic in the roundabout is simulated using an open source software for microscopic and continuous traffic simulations, widely employed for reproducing a wide range of traffic scenarios. In order for the automated vehicles to negotiate the roundabout, a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is developed. Traffic simulation and RL algorithm run in parallel to the driving simulator environment, while a real time scheduler synchronizes the different simulations. Preliminary tests are carried on considering a panel of different drivers. In order for them to have a complete perception of the traffic scenario, drivers repeat the test entering the roundabout one time for each of its legs. For each leg, the manoeuvre is repeated with different percentages of automated vehicles. After the test, drivers are asked to fill a survey to evaluate their perceptions in the different situations. The responses of the testers are evaluated to understand their perception of the CCAVs behaviour. In particular, the acceptance of the human drivers with respect to the presence of CCAVs is investigated with reference to drivers’ perception of traffic fluidity and safety. Drivers’ preferences of higher or lower CCAVs percentage in the considered traffic conditions are also analysed. From the results, it seems that human drivers accept driving together with CCAVs.

FISITA World Congress 2023

Intelligent transport systems



Cooperative, connected and automated vehicles into a roundabout, FWC2023-ITS-002, FISITA World Congress 2023


Paper + Video + Slides


Dr. Federico Bertasi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Marco Bandiera, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Alessandro Mancini, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Arianna Pavesi, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Dr. Andrea Bonfanti, Brembo S.p.A., ITALY

Prof. Massimiliano Bestetti, Politecnico di Milano, ITALY

Anodization plays a pivotal role in improving the corrosion resistance of Aluminum-Silicon alloys (AlSix) used in the production of brake calipers.[1] However, the presence of eutectic Silicon particles within the Al matrix can reduce the oxide layer growing rate, leading to inhomogeneous and porous coatings. Following this, tailored current/potential anodization waveforms have been developed, in order to overcome the presence of Silicon, thus obtaining anodic layers with enhanced morphological and corrosion-resistance features.[2][3]

In this scenario, a fervent lab-scale R&D activity has been carried out regarding the optimization of pulsed anodization in terms of current density and frequency of the used square wave, obtaining: 1) coated AlSix specimens (30cm2) showing a superior corrosion resistance; and 2) a set of refined anodization parameters to be used to treat AlSix –based materials.[4] Unfortunately, anodization of a prototype caliper, using the obtained optimized waveforms, is not straightforward and appears particularly more challenging with respect to the lab-scale treatment of small specimens. Indeed, the presence of: a) non-uniform Silicon distribution (machined vs. non-machined regions); and b) shielded areas and/or sharp edges; can strongly influence the oxide growth, leading to inhomogeneous coatings and a morphology-dependent corrosion resistance.

As a further step toward the implementation of the optimized parameters in an anodization pilot plant, an electrochemical bath is designed, aiming at: 1) anodize a single brake caliper; and 2) scale up the anodization parameters from specimens to caliper treatment. The manuscript will discuss the so-obtained anodized caliper in terms of oxide layer: a) morphology; b) wettability; and c) corrosion resistance. The effect of optimized vs. non-optimized parameters will be discussed as well. Results allow to outline the path for an advanced anodization process, that will briefly lead to obtain AlSix brake calipers with an extended corrosion resistance.


[1] Bandiera, M., Bonfanti, A., Mauri, A., Mancini, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Corrosion Phenomena in Braking Systems”, CORROSION/20, Manuscript no. C2020-14550, 2020.

[2] Bandiera, M., Bonfanti, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Anodization: Recent Advancements on Corrosion Protection of Brake Calipers”, SAE Technical Paper, Manuscript no. 2020-01-1626, 2020.

[3] Fratila-Apachitei, L. E., J. Duszczyk, and L. Katgerman. "AlSi (Cu) anodic oxide layers formed in H2SO4 at low temperature using different current waveforms", Surface and Coatings Technology, 165.3, pp. 232-240, 2003.

[4] Bandiera, M., Mancini, A., Pavesi, A., Bonfanti, A., Bestetti, M., Bertasi, F., “Optimized Pulsed Anodization for Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Silicon Alloys”, CORROSION/21, Manuscript no. C2021-16431, 2021. (under review).

EuroBrake 2021




Lab-Scale Anodization of Prototype Brake Calipers, EB2021-STP-012, EuroBrake 2021

Error message goes here.

bottom of page