German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)
The German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) was founded in 1988 as a non-profit public-private partnership. It has research facilities in Kaiserslautern, Saarbrücken and Bremen, a project office in Berlin, a Laboratory in Niedersachsen and branch offices in Lübeck, St. Wendel and Trier. In the field of innovative commercial software technology using Artificial Intelligence, DFKI is the leading research center in Germany.
Based on application oriented basic research, DFKI develops product functions, prototypes and patentable solutions in the field of information and communication technology. Research and development projects are conducted in 24 research departments, nine competence centers and eight living labs. Funding is received from government agencies like the European Union, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the German Federal States and the German Research Foundation (DFG), as well as from cooperation with industrial partners. Twice a year, a committee of internationally renowned experts (Scientific Advisory Board) audits the progress and results of state-funded projects.
Apart from the state governments of Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and Bremen, numerous renowned German and international high-tech companies from a wide range of industrial sectors are represented on the DFKI supervisory board. The DFKI model of a non-profit public-private partnership (ppp) is nationally and internationally considered a blueprint for corporate structure in the field of top-level research.
DFKI is actively involved in numerous organizations representing and continuously advancing Germany as an excellent location for cutting-edge research and technology. Far beyond the country’s borders DFKI enjoys an excellent reputation for its academic training of young scientists. At present, approx. 670 highly qualified researchers, administrators and 450 graduate students from more than 65 countries are contributing to approx. 250 DFKI research projects. DFKI serves as a stepping stone to leading positions in industry and successful careers as founders of spin-off companies. Over the years, more than 140 staff members have been appointed professors at universities in Germany and abroad.
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16 July 2021
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Paper + Video + Slides
Mr. Tobias Loss, Robert Bosch GmbH, GERMANY
Dr.-Ing. Simon Peter, Robert Bosch GmbH, GERMANY
Dipl.-Ing. Armin Verhagen, Robert Bosch GmbH, GERMANY
apl. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Daniel Görges, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), GERMANY
Current electric vehicles (EVs) already perform most braking maneuvers by recuperation using the electric powertrain. In order to generate additional benefits regarding cost, weight, brake dust emission and design freedom, there might be the option to omit the brake system and solely brake by recuperation. The potential elimination or downsizing of the friction brakes results in multiple questions concerning deceleration capabilities, availability of brake torques as well as driving dynamics. Especially for EVs with the electric motor located centrally at the axle, wheel individual braking interventions may not be possible without additional measures.
This study investigates the brake torque requirements for the rear axle of an electrically driven urban vehicle with rear axle drivetrain. The focus of the analysis is targeted on wheel individual brake torque generation as such differential brake torques may be relevant for state of the art (SoA) driving safety and electronic stability control (ESC) interventions.
In order to examine the wheel individual brake torque requirements a Simulink based software in the loop (SiL) simulation environment for vehicle dynamics is utilized. It simulates the dynamic behavior of vehicles with focus on the brake system. The main feature is the integration of software in the loop control algorithms of an ESC system with powertrain, vehicle behavior and electronics also being included. To maintain expert knowledge and application effort, a simulation model and ESC software of a SoA series production urban EV is used.
This model is applied to a vehicle test catalogue for ESC software release covering maneuvers that allow testing of different driving stability functions. Based on the simulation results and supported by real world measurement data, the most critical driving maneuvers concerning the amount of differential brake torque, its direction and dynamics are identified. The test catalogue includes driving scenarios such as acceleration on inhomogeneous surfaces. In case of a vehicle equipped with a conventional open differential the maximum drive torque of the entire axle is limited by the lower friction wheel. Wheel individual brake applications can increase this drive torque. Such intervention may not be possible in vehicles without a conventional brake system topology. As a result, acceleration on such surface is restricted. Further maneuvers examined are dynamic cornering situations that may require wheel individual brake torque to ensure driving stability and safety. An in-depth analysis of the SoA vehicle behavior and its control strategy is necessary to understand potentials and limitations of EVs with non-conventional brake topologies.
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